Wednesday, December 4, 2019
FOR MORE Essay about crime.co.nzClick here for details on the Technology behind this siteOUR VISION To Make New Zealand Safer through Knowledge and Awareness of Crime. OUR MISSIONTo provide a comprehensive information resource on New Zealand crime and policing issues. OUR VALUES Crime.co.nz will maintain site integrity by:Always seeking to be accurate Always seeking to be objective Providing a forum for online responses to crime and policing issues Crime.co.nz is presented on the internet on the understanding that:1.The authors, editor, and contributors (financial or otherwise) are not responsible for the results ofany actions taken on the basis of information in this site, nor any errors or omissions; and 2.The site is not engaged in rendering legal or other professional services. Crime.co.nz , NZCity, and the authors, editor and contributors expressly disclaim all and any liability to themaximum extent permitted by law to any person, in respect of anything and of the consequences ofanything done or omitted to be done by any such person in reliance, whether whole or partial, upon thewhole or any part of the contents of this site. If expert assistance is required, the services of a competentWhile reasonable effort has been made to ensure the acc uracy of information on publication, neithercrime.co.nz or NZCity guarantees its accuracy. Where opinions and views have been expressed these are not necessary the opinions and views of Back to Crime: For advertising opportunities contact: emailprotected2000 New Zealand City LtdBibliography:
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Action research is carried out be people who usually recognize a problem or limitation in their workplace situation and, together, devise a plan to counteract the problem, implement the plan, observe what happens, reflect on these outcomes, revise the plan, implement it, reflect, revise and so on. Action research can be though of as a spiral of planning, acting, observing and reflecting, occruing through time until the most desirable outcomes for all participants are achieved. | The Nature of Social and Cultural Continuity and Change| Understanding continuity and change through:| Identifying the nature of social and cultural continuity and change| The concepts of continuity and change are commonly used in our society, but for many of us they are hard to define. These terms share the feature of time being a determining factor. It is the opportunity of time that allows a society to develop and modify itself to change. Likewise when we observe a particular culture or community over a period of time we can oberve clear continuities. We will write a custom essay sample on Society and Culture or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The term social change is a term used within sociology and applies to modifications in social relationships or culture (the term cultural change is the term used within anthropology). Since society and culture are interdependent, sociocultural change is a more accepted term. The study of sociocultural change is the systematic study of variation in social and cultural systems. There are inherent methodological problems of identification and measurement of change, and rarely does one cause produce one effect. All societies are involved in a process of social change, however, this change may be so incremental that the members of the society are hardly aware of it. People living in very traditional societies would be in this category. Societies are characterised by change: the rate of change, the processes of change, and the directions of change. The actions of individuals, organisations and social movements have an impact on society and may become the catalyst for social change. The actions of individuals, however, occur within the context of culture, institutions and power structures inherited from the past, and usually, for these individuals to effect dramatic social change, the society itself is tripe for change. Broad social trends, for example, shifts in population, urbanisation, industrialisation and bureaucratisation, can lead to significant social change. In the past, this has been associated with modernisation, the process whereby a society moves from traditional, less developed modes of production (like small-scale agriculture) to technologically advanced industrial modes of production. Trends like population growth and urbanisation have a significant impact on other aspects of society, like social structure, institutions and culture. Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century social theorists focused fairly extensively on modernisation, but they tended to present on oversimplified grand narrative which resulted from heavily ideological interpretations of the contrast between tradition and modernisation. They also attempted to externalise absolutes, social laws as they saw them, and they argued that these social laws were operative in structurally similar societies. Social continuity cannot simply be defined as the absence of social change, that is, things remaining the same, because social change is a continual process in all societies. Nothing remains the same. However, within societies there are structures which are inherently resistant to change, and in this sense, we can talk about them as being social continuities. Individuals within societies need social continuities to a lesser or greater extent, depending on significant factors like age, gender, education, access to power, wealth, vested interest, etc. Even rock-solid institutions like the family, the law, and religions are subject to change, even though they represent social continuity. There has always been family and it is still the foundational institution for society and the primary agent of socialisation, however the composition of family has changed in recent years, leading to different kinds of families and different socialisation experiences for their members. The same ideas can be applied to law and religion. Social and cultural continuities can be likened to individuals habits comfortable patterns of behaviour that give individuals a sense of security and personal control a haven or a respite in a sea of social and cultural change. There is a high correlation between the rate of social and cultural change and resistance to that change. In times when members of a society feel that change is out of control, it is likely that the desire for continuity becomes more extreme, resulting in backward-looking idealisations of the past. While social change is itself a continuity, certain periods of human history have created great transformations (Polanyi 1973). The Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution created one such Great Transformation. Polanyi saw it as beginning in the 17th and 18th centuries and continuing today, characterised by:| | | Ã¢â¬ ¢ the rise of a capitalist, global economy and growth in production and wealth Ã¢â¬ ¢ a scientific revolution new ways of thinking about causation, moving from religious to secular Ã¢â¬ ¢ a new concept of time population growth, immigration and urbanisation political move to nation, which involved governments expanding their control to social, economic and cultural life, followed by the extension of that control to other, less advanced countries (colonialism/imperialism) either through military conquest or trade conquest and today, perhaps, characterised by conquest through communication (eg. the Americanisation or westernisation of culture). | | | According to Bessant and Watts (1999: 20):A key sign of the magnitude of the changes in that first Great Transformation is found in the ways people continued talking about the experience of loss, the world we have lost. Phrases like the death of God, demise of the family, and the loss of community reflect the long-standing feelings of bereavement and loss that accompanied the modernising experience. Polanyi would argue that similar feelings of loss and bereavement are expressed, in similar terms, today in our post-modern society where rapid, often dramatic change has become almost the norm. Although many individuals, for example, Marx, Toennies, Comte and Spencer developed different versions of what Comte called sociology, the science of society, it wasnt until the late 1 9th century that sociology as established as an academic discipline. Social theories came out of this new discipline, as attempts to explain, or account for, social change. Social theories were, and still are today, products of their times and are characterised to a greater or lesser extent by the prevailing views and ideologies of their eras. When studying social theories, and using one or more of them in an attempt to explain soc ial and cultural change, it is important to recognise this fact about them and to be conscious, if not critical, of the biases, values and assumptions inherent in them. Sociological theory can be roughly divided into periods during which different schools of theoretical thought tended to be dominant:| | | Ã¢â¬ ¢ from the late Nineteenth/early Twentieth Century until the 1 92Os, while Sociology was establishing itself as an academic discipline in Its own right (there was, at the same time, a development of Anthropology) Social Darwinism, early evolutionary theory, which was functionalist in its perspective, was a dominant school of thought Ã¢â¬ ¢ the 1940s -1960s was the era of Structural Functionalism (Parsons, Spencer, Durkheim and Comte) by the mid-1 960s (1 960s 1 980s), Marxism, Weberian sociology, Feminism and Symbolic Interactionism were dominant Ã¢â¬ ¢ most recently, Post-Modernism (also called Post-Structuralism) has tended to dominate sociological thinking. | | | This division isnt absolute in that different schools of sociological thought agreed with, disagreed with, borrowed and rejected aspects of each others premises. Even within th e different schools of thought, there is acceptance and rejection of other proponents ideas. | | * TIME Past| Present| Future| What was it like? Why? | WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s changed? Why? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the same? Why? | What will change? Why? What will remain? Why? | | Examining the impact of continuity change upon the lives of people in the micro and macro worlds| Family structures- there is no doubt that the nature of structures within the family unit have also changed over the last few decades. In Australian society post WW2, the culture of the day was changing dramatically. Australians for the first time, in some cases, were being exposed to different patterns of living and cultural values with the arrival of many immigrants from many countries around the world. This tradition of immigration to Australia has continued, often as a reaction to world events. Prior to the second WW the most common family model was known as nuclear, two generations living together. However in the past few deceased it has become more common for families to extend. This has been due to either older relatives needing to live with younger generations, or for cultural reasons. In addition to this, the increase of divorce has resulted in a range of new family structures forming. These new structures can range from single-parents to blended families. There are also indicators that tell us though that there are some aspects of the family unit that are changed over the past few decades- continuity-particularly when we look at its purpose. In modern western societies the responsibility of child raising lies with the immediate family. This is one aspect of the role of the family unit that is still a cultural norm. Parents are still seen to be the primary care givers and with the help of other adults around them take on the responsibility for all aspects of their Childs development. All members of that family have a responsibility to that distinct group. This sense of belonging to a distinct social group complete with mutual rights and obligations is also largely unchanged. In western cultures, it is still the family that has one of the most crucial roles in socialising children. This socialisation enables these children to participate in their given society as an adult. Characteristics of students-Many of the changes that have occurred in the way young people approach their education are reflective of the societal change that all of us experience on a daily basis in our society. It is clear that in a relatively short space of time approaches to learning and communication have changed dramatically. In relation to learning specifically, the Millennials: -favour group activity- are able to multi-task with ease-respond and adapt to new technologies very quickly-are positive in their attitude to learning-use technology such as the internet for work and leisureBy that comparison we need to keep in mind, for many Generation X-ers the computer was not commonly used during their peak years of formal education. Technology has also influenced the manner in which students wish to communicate with other students and their teachers. As young people are now used to being able to message people immediately and have a quick response, the manner in which they want to communicate in their general relationships in their micro world has also changed dramatically by comparison to the students before them. Clearly there has been significant change in the way in which young people approach technology and their learning generally. Continuity- the benefit of using different strategies in learning such as visual, linguistic, audiotry, kinaesthetic in order that learning is well balanced has always been evident. While there has always been different trends in approaches to learning, it has been acknowledged for decades that there are many modes of learning on offer to us as students. The need for students to learn from and communicate to others around them during the learning process has also been seen of value for a long period of time. Distinguishing between personal experience and public knowledge | | Examining the role of power and authority in social and cultural continuity and change| | Introducing theories of social change and evaluating their role in explaining continuities and changes in society| | Explore continuity and change through examination of the following questions:When we discuss change we are referring to cultural and social change. Human society according to Toffler has gone through three specific stages of change:- the agrarian revolution: the change in settlement patterns from nomadic to stable communities. Much technological change with regard to ways of working e. g. use of the plough- The industrial revolution: the era of machine replacing muscle, the advent of the use of steam in factories. Production rates increased dramatically as the factory system developed. The development of the new merchant class and a middle class were the major social changes of the day. The working classes also grew with both agricultural workers and urban workers. -The information revolution- this has been referred to as the era of machine replacing the mind. The development of technologies particularly in relation to communication and information technologies. Suter reminds us that there is a correlation between the agrarian revolution, industrial revolution and information revolution and the concepts of power and authority. Agrarian Revolution=monarchy: feudal system, kings and queens, emperors, pharaohs, maharajas. A rule by hereditary elites. Industrial Revolution=Nation State: Rise of democracy, republics, communism: informed public now choose their government, such as voting for the president or electing a prime minister-Information Revolution=? Is this change yet to be define? Who is really running the world? Corportation? Macro groups like the EU? What is the role of the UN, the World Economic Forum and the World Bank? Al-Qaeda? | Is all change necessarily progress? | | Which groups benefit from change? Which do not? | | Are westernization, modernization and industrialization inevitable? | |
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Gene Technology Essays Gene Technology Essay Gene Technology Essay 010 Chapter 10 Gene Technology Student: _________________________________________________________ 1. Trimming certain genes out of molecules of DNA requires the use of special: A. digestive enzymes B. restriction enzymes C. enzymes from peroxisomes D. microscopic scalpels 2. To seal the cut fragments of DNA together, an enzyme called __________ is used. A. amylase B. peptidase C. trypsin D. ligase 3. Choose the correct sequence for gene transfer procedures. A. cleaving DNA, recombining DNA, cloning, screening B. screening, cleaving DNA, cloning, recombining DNA C. recombining DNA, screening, cloning, cleaving DNA D. cleaving DNA, cloning, screening, recombining DNA 4. The step that is most labor-intensive in gene transfer procedures is: A. cleaving DNA B. recombining DNA C. screening D. cloning 5. Some bacteria, through natural selection, have acquired some extremely potent enzymes that destroy viral DNA, thereby preventing the bacterial cell from becoming infected with the virus. These enzymes are called: A. DNA polymerases B. DNA ligases C. restriction endonucleases D. restriction ligases 6. When researchers wish to make multiple copies of a gene without first inserting it into a bacterium, they employ the: A. centrifuge B. pepsin activation reaction C. polymerase chain reaction D. gel electrophoresis 7. If a fragment of eukaryotic RNA is needed that is made up only of exons, the place to look in the cell to find this is: A. attached to the inner cell membrane B. inside the nucleolus C. inside the nucleus D. in the cytoplasm 8. Primers are: A. short sequences of nucleotides on either side of the gene to be amplified B. sticky ends of DNA fragments C. beginning nucleotide sequences in plasmids D. types of undercoating for paint 9. The enzyme used to carry out the polymerase chain reaction on DNA is: : A. transcriptase B. reverse transcriptase C. RNA polymerase D. DNA polymerase 10. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is also used to: A. clone entire organisms B. make polyploid copies of the human genome C. make DNA fingerprints in criminal investigations D. clone bacterial colonies 11. The enzyme used to make a DNA copy complementary to processed mRNA is: A. transcriptase B. reverse transcriptase C. RNA polymerase D. DNA polymerase 12. DNA fingerprinting is a highly accurate method of identifying a criminal from evidence, (blood, hair, skin, semen) left at a crime scene. TrueÃ Ã Ã Ã False 3. Inserting a gene encoding a pathogenic microbes surface protein into a harmless virus is the way a(n) _________________ is produced. A. piggyback vaccine B. clone of antibodies C. virulent virus D. active disease-causing pathogen 14. A friend asks you a question after your biology class. Whats genetic engineering? Your answer is: A. Genetic engineering is the ability of scientists to remove a nucleus from a cell and place it into another cell. B. Genetic engineering is taking proteins from one organism and placing them into another organism of a different species. C. Genetic engineering is moving genes from one organism to another. D. Genetic engineering is removing structural components, for example a lysosome, from one part of a cell and placing those structures elsewhere in that cell. 15. Genetic engineering in agriculture has been employed to: A. make crops resistant to insect pests B. make crops resistant to certain herbicides C. make crops more nutritious D. All of these are correct. 16. Crop plants are made resistant to insect pests by: A. causing them to grow taller B. inserting a gene from bacteria that secrete Bt C. coating them with a gel D. All of these are correct. 17. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, is a good choice for engineering plants resistant to it because: A. it is a powerful herbicide B. it is readily biodegradable C. humans are not affected by it D. All of these are correct. 18. Golden rice is so-named because it contains: A. vitamin C B. vitamin A and iron C. nitrogen D. golden bacteria 19. The introduction of bovine growth hormone into the diets of dairy cows is important because it: A. doubles the number of calves they produce annually B. makes them immune to infection by plasmids C. greatly improves their milk production D. improves the taste of their milk 0. A number of human genes have been inserted into bacteria to produce many useful human proteins EXCEPT: A. insulin B. factor VIII C. anticoagulants D. human hemoglobin 21. Moving genes from one organism to another is often referred to as ________________________. ________________________________________ 22. Scientists employ a method called ____________ _______ to visual fragments of genes they are attempting to isolate. ________________________________________ 23. EcoRI is an example of a ______________________. ________________________________________ 24. PCR is an abbreviation for _________________________. _______________________________________ 25. When RNA polymerase makes an unprocessed mRNA copy of DNA, the copy is called the ___________________. ________________________________________ 26. When the introns are removed to make mRNA that can be used in protein synthesis, the mRNA is now called __________________. ________________________________________ 27. A _______ is a tiny circle of bacterial DNA that is capable of replicating outside of the main bacterial chromosome. ________________________________________ 28. When genes are inserted into lung cells of cystic fibrosis patients, this kind of treatment is referred to as _______________. _______________________________________ 29. Combining the DNA of two different organi sms is called ______________ cloning. ________________________________________ 30. Plasmids or viruses can serve as _______________ to carry foreign DNA into the host cell. ________________________________________ 31. When the method is perfected, it will be possible to transfer healthy genes into cystic fibrosis patients via aerosol inhalants to cure this genetic disease. Is this type of gene transfer an actual cure or is it a treatment? In other words, could this person still pass along cystic fibrosis genes? 32. What is the advantage of using restriction enzymes to cleave DNA? 33. In gene transfer procedures, why is it necessary to use processed mRNA molecules to make DNA to transfer to another organism? 34. What are some of the benefits of transferring genes from one organism to another? 35. Do you feel there is any harm in cloning mammals? Why? Why not? 010 Chapter 10 Gene Technology KEY 1. Trimming certain genes out of molecules of DNA requires the use of special: a. digestive enzymes BÃ Ã restriction enzymes c. enzymes from peroxisomes d. microscopic scalpels 2. To seal the cut fragments of DNA together, an enzyme called __________ is used. . amylase b. peptidase c. trypsin DÃ Ã ligase 3. Choose the correct sequence for gene transfer procedures. AÃ Ã cleaving DNA, recombining DNA, cloning, screening b. screening, cleaving DNA, cloning, recombining DNA c. recombining DNA, screening, cloning, cleaving DNA d. cleaving DNA, cloning, screening, recombining DNA 4. The step that is most labor-intensive in gene transfer procedures is: a. cleaving DNA b. recombining DNA CÃ Ã screening d. cloning 5. Some bacteria, through natural selection, have acquired some extremely potent enzymes that destroy viral DNA, thereby preventing the bacterial cell from becoming infected with the virus. These enzymes are called: a. DNA polymerases b. DNA ligases CÃ Ã restriction endonucleases d. restriction ligases 6. When researchers wish to make multiple copies of a gene without first inserting it into a bacterium, they employ the: a. centrifuge b. pepsin activation reaction CÃ Ã polymerase chain reaction d. gel electrophoresis 7. If a fragment of eukaryotic RNA is needed that is made up only of exons, the place to look in the cell to find this is: a. attached to the inner cell membrane b. inside the nucleolus c. inside the nucleus DÃ Ã in the cytoplasm 8. Primers are: AÃ Ã short sequences of nucleotides on either side of the gene to be amplified . sticky ends of DNA fragments c. beginning nucleotide sequences in plasmids d. types of undercoating for paint 9. The enzyme used to carry out the polymerase chain reaction on DNA is: a. transcriptase b. reverse transcriptase c. RNA polymerase DÃ Ã DNA polymerase 10. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is also used to : a. clone entire organisms b. make polyploid copies of the human genome CÃ Ã make DNA fingerprints in criminal investigations d. clone bacterial colonies 11. The enzyme used to make a DNA copy complementary to processed mRNA is: a. transcriptase BÃ Ã reverse transcriptase c. RNA polymerase d. DNA polymerase 12. DNA fingerprinting is a highly accurate method of identifying a criminal from evidence, (blood, hair, skin, semen) left at a crime scene. TRUE 13. Inserting a gene encoding a pathogenic microbes surface protein into a harmless virus is the way a(n) _________________ is produced. AÃ Ã piggyback vaccine b. clone of antibodies c. virulent virus d. active disease-causing pathogen 14. A friend asks you a question after your biology class. Whats genetic engineering? Your answer is: a. Genetic engineering is the ability of scientists to remove a nucleus from a cell and place it into another cell. b. Genetic engineering is taking proteins from one organism and placing them into another organism of a different species. CÃ Ã Genetic engineering is moving genes from one organism to another. d. Genetic engineering is removing structural components, for example a lysosome, from one part of a cell and placing those structures elsewhere in that cell. 15. Genetic engi neering in agriculture has been employed to: a. make crops resistant to insect pests b. make crops resistant to certain herbicides c. make crops more nutritious DÃ Ã All of these are correct. 16. Crop plants are made resistant to insect pests by: a. causing them to grow taller BÃ Ã inserting a gene from bacteria that secrete Bt c. coating them with a gel d. All of these are correct. 17. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, is a good choice for engineering plants resistant to it because: a. it is a powerful herbicide b. it is readily biodegradable c. humans are not affected by it DÃ Ã All of these are correct. 18. Golden rice is so-named because it contains: a. vitamin C BÃ Ã vitamin A and iron c. nitrogen d. golden bacteria 19. The introduction of bovine growth hormone into the diets of dairy cows is important because it: a. doubles the number of calves they produce annually . makes them immune to infection by plasmids CÃ Ã greatly improves their milk production d. improves the taste of their milk 20. A number of human genes have been inserted into bacteria to produce many useful human proteins EXCEPT: a. insulin b. factor VIII c. anticoagulants DÃ Ã human hemoglobin 21. Moving genes from one organism to another i s often referred to as ________________________. genetic engineering 22. Scientists employ a method called ___________________ to visual fragments of genes they are attempting to isolate. gel electrophoresis 23. EcoRI is an example of a ______________________. restriction enzyme 24. PCR is an abbreviation for _________________________. polymerase chain reaction 25. When RNA polymerase makes an unprocessed mRNA copy of DNA, the copy is called the ___________________. primary transcript 26. When the introns are removed to make mRNA that can be used in protein synthesis, the mRNA is now called __________________. processed mRNA 27. A _______ is a tiny circle of bacterial DNA that is capable of replicating outside of the main bacterial chromosome. plasmid 28. When genes are inserted into lung cells of cystic fibrosis patients, this kind of treatment is referred to as _______________. gene therapy 29. Combining the DNA of two different organisms is called ______________ cloning. transgenic 30. Plasmids or viruses can serve as _______________ to carry foreign DNA into the host cell. vectors 31. When the method is perfected, it will be possible to transfer healthy genes into cystic fibrosis patients via aerosol inhalants to cure this genetic disease. Is this type of gene transfer an actual cure or is it a treatment? In other words, could this person still pass along cystic fibrosis genes? Unless it is possible to correct the genetic defect in the persons gametes, they will still be able to pass on the genes for cystic fibrosis. However, the inhalant treatment is an important milestone in the treatment of this disease, especially if it can put a halt to the lung damage so characteristic of the cystic fibrosis patient. The life expectancy for these patients is short otherwise. 32. What is the advantage of using restriction enzymes to cleave DNA? Hundreds of different restriction enzymes are known. Once the scientist knows the nucleotide sequence on either side of the gene to be excised, the appropriate restriction enzyme can be used to cut the DNA at that particular spot. The advantage is that restriction enzymes cut the DNA so it has sticky ends that can match up with complementary sequences elsewhere. 33. In gene transfer procedures, why is it necessary to use processed mRNA molecules to make DNA to transfer to another organism? This procedure is necessary only when the gene to be transferred comes from a eukaryote. Eukaryotic DNA contains introns as well as exons, and bacteria have no way of removing introns because their DNA has none. So introns must be removed, and processed mRNA molecules have already had that done. 34. What are some of the benefits of transferring genes from one organism to another? First of all, we can get bacteria to mass-produce human proteins, such as the hormone insulin, that can be used to treat human diseases. Since the protein makes use of a human gene, it matches precisely that which would normally be produced in the human body. Second, many beneficial agricultural advances will surely come from gene transfers. For example, pest resistance in plants will lessen the need for pesticides that are costly and pollute the environment. 35. Do you feel there is any harm in cloning mammals? Why? Why not? Answers will vary.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Substance abuse documentation confidentiality - Research Paper Example According to 10A NCAC 26B .0102, the state, individuals or area facilities with access to confidential information must take the affirmative measures in safeguarding such information. Any confidential information must not be released, except in accordance to G.S 122C-51 through the 122C-56. The release of confidential information regarding substance abusers must be based on federal regulations of the part 2 of 42 C.F.R. The confidentiality of records for drug and alcohol abusers adopted by the G.S. 150B-14(c) must be pursued unless in case of restrictive rules (Ganley, 2005). Each area within the facilities of the state maintaining confidential information record must provide a secure place for storing the records. Also, they must develop the written policies and procedures on controlled access for the records. All area of the state must ensure authorized access of such records. The director in each state facility must ensure the presence of the clinical staff members to protect and explain the records when the legal person of the client demands the review of the records. Delegated employees develop the procedures and policies on the provision of safeguards to enhance controlled access of such information (Martin & Moracco, 2008). The director of the state facility must ensure that all people involved in handling confidential information know the terms and conditions provided under G.S. 122C-52 through to 122C-56, and the facility must develop written procedures and policies based on the rules. The facility must provide trainings to all individual authorised access of confidential information. The individual in training must indicate their understanding of the governing requirements confidentiality through signing a statement of compliance and understanding (Ganley, 2005). Employees must sign the statement upon employment and in case the revisions happens
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Analysis of Ethnic Conflict in KOSOVO - Essay Example Furthermore, the area needs proper management of these diverse societies so that such conflicts can be avoided since these altercations might escalate into a bloody civil war2. Such is the case of Kosovo, formerly a province of Serbia which have erupted into a bloody war towards the latter part of the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. The carnage in the area was only halted by the intervention of NATO. Although this temporarily stopped the fighting and an independent state seems to be forming, the area remains in a precarious ceasefire as relative tensions remain between the Albanians and the Serbians wherein the secession resulted in the breakaway of an Albanian dominated Kosovo. This left the remaining Serbians in a quandary since they may be subjected to discrimination. The fear of possible persecution threatens to drive the Serbs away from Kosovo in effect dislocating them from their homes and towards a life of uncertainty3. Part 1 Kosovo Ethnic Conflict History has been teeming with ethnic conflicts and there have been numerous cases of violence that bordered on genocide. Through each of these conflicts, the diversity of culture as well as past excessiveness and offenses of one culture to another serve as fertile grounds for multi-ethnic conflicts to escalate into bloody wars. In Kosovo, the people of the neophyte state have been trying to lead a life of normalcy but as mentioned, considerable tension remains. After the breakaway, Kosovo was held by the majority Albanians that through the years have accumulated in the area. However, these people have experienced severe persecution when the autonomy of the then Serbian province has been revoked. There had been an apparent attempt to cleanse the area of Albanians when the ruling Serbs massacred numerous Albanians. This did not spare women, children and the elderly. Likewise, summary executions, kidnappings and arrests were rampant.4 The memories of these horrible events have been seared deep within the Albanians that now control Kosovo. As mentioned, there is a lingering anxiety within the remaining Serbs that have been relegated into the minority in the area. In a statement by Dr. Covic in front of the UN Security Council in New York over half a decade after NATO intervened and an uneasy ceasefire ensued, he advanced the concerns that the agreements have yet to be met by the Albanian authority. Dr. Covic lamented on the over 200,000 internally displaced Serbs and called on the council to act on these problems along with the need to implement court decisions in order to return properties to heir rightful Serbian owners. He likewise mentioned the seemingly disturbing solid line up of Albanians in the governing body of the area which may be detrimental to non-Albanians5. Hence, this essay will look into the situation of the now minority Serbs in Kosovo and the persisting multi-ethnic tensions between the two groups. Divisiveness and Scars of the Past The Albanians have constituted the majority of the populat ion in Kosovo long before the province split from Serbia in a bid to become independent. Previously, despite the lack of economic prosperity which was instrumental in driving most of the Serbs out of the area, the Albanians enjoyed a respectable degree of autonomy. This was shattered by the revocation of this autonomy paving the way for conflicts to arise. The human rights violations intensified and the massacres heightened to almost genocide
Monday, November 18, 2019
Customer Decision Making and Brand Personality - Essay Example Branding is done for particular objectives chief among them helping in the delivery of the message to the potential clients with clarity and precision. A great brand also confirms the viability of a product and the company that presents the brand and also connects the target market with the product emotionally. A good brand also motivates buyers and gives them more reasons to identify with the product has made specifically for them. Wanting cannot be done in isolation without understanding the needs and desires of the customers. A brand should therefore integrate the emotions and desires of potential clients with the identity of the product to increase the magnitude of the product (Schiffman et al, 2011). Brand Personality Brand personality is described as a set of human features that can be identified in a product, good or service that is available in the market; it is a feature that customers and potential clients can easily relate with due to its consistent traits and features. Br and personality is considered as a value added trait that makes a good more visible and imposed to the clients. A product with good brand personality has the ability to excite, is competent, sincere, rugged and sophisticated. A customer feels free to buy a product whose traits and characters can be related to their own behaviors and lifestyle. A carefree, youthful, elegant, rough, and thoughtful personality identifies easily with a product that has the same pool of features. The market is like a crowded room full of different products shouting to be seen and recognized by the buyers or potential clients. A good brand personality stands out in a crowded market and does this without standing or being more conspicuous. The brand trait and personality alone is enough to make all the customers recognize it and make an effort towards buying it. Great brands are believed to go beyond Ã¢â¬Å"transactional loyaltyÃ¢â¬ which is the negotiated sales and frequency points to create a real con nection that can create emotional royalty (Schiffman et al, 2011). Before a customer can understand and recognize a brand, there is need for the marketer to understand his/her brand personality. The marketer and the organization must put itself in the shoes of the customer by first analyzing the impact that the brand may create. An organization must therefore identify an object, personality or even animal that they feel suits their image or the image of their product. For example, which car brand or animal does an organization feel it can be associated with? Can the analogy of a convertible or a Volvo, or even a lion or a given sport or movie celebrity fit into the services they offer? (Sung, 2010) Understanding a brand personality is like taking a look at the mirror to see what your reflection looks like in your face and in the face of the customers. Clarity and confidence in a brand personality is also essential for organizations and marketers for it enable them to identify the st rengths and weaknesses of the brand (Russell and Emily, 2011). Implementing a brand personality is an important aspect of marketing as it requires in depth analysis of the nature and impact of that the brand may create. Implementing a brand personality require the complete adopting of three steps which are attributed to the strength and ability of a brand to impress.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Gcc economies Introduction Challenges and Opportunities in GCC Economies. General Attitude towards Foreign Investors Trade integration and Economic Philosophy in GCC economies. Economic Status of GCC economies. Economic Stability. GCCs Political Stability . FDI in the GCC countries The size of the Market . Physical Infrastructure . Resource Endowment and Industrialization . Labor Force . GCC India business relationship . Challenges. Trade Protection and Competitiveness. Lack of diversification The Changing Economic Context of Gulf Politics. Recommendations and conclusions Reference Executive Summary The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is an attractive location for investment and a salient consumer market for imported goods and services, and information technology to one of the youngest population that is considered to have highest powers of spending in the world. The common market of the six GCC economies are open to foreign capital investment and are continually working to grant national treatment to all foreign investment firms and cross country investment and services trade. By 2010, GCCs inter-state trade is expected to enhance by 25 percent, and international trade in this states is anticipated to grow by multiples. Given its trade history and strategic location, the six GCC economies has had long trade and diplomatic relationships with Asia, Europe, and African states, suggesting that it stands to benefit in the long-term from the anticipated growth of these countries. The GCC economies have upheld an open system of trading, free capital movement, convertibility of currency with fixed nominal rates, and large labor inflows- both skilled and unskilled. Additionally, the GCCs advanced financial systems have been an essential channel for advancing their trade integration into the global community. Despite current global economic crises, the GCC has remained a very liquid expanse. The economic growth in several key sectors is forecasted to be moving forwards across the region. Any investor considering venturing in the GCC should be centrally positioned to take advantage of one of the worlds fastest-growing markets. Given the GCCs comparative advantage in oil, gas, petrochemical products, and private capital, and given the Indias technology, know- how, marketing skills and that can be marketed in a very sizeable market indeed. When countries or trading partners specialize on the basis of their comparative advantages, returns are maximized. Therefore Indian firms invested heavily according to the strategy emphasizing their comparative advantages in oil and gas service sector, which presents a great scope for Indian enterprises to undertake joint investments in these fields. Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) consisting of states six Arab states (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman United Arab Emirates, and the Kuwait) located in Arabian Gulf. The GCC economies are one of the fastest-growing international markets and have become increasingly important to the economy of the whole world. GCC attracts an ever-increasing number of foreign investments and across wide-ranging sectors. Its rapid development and expansion has made it an active seeker for modern technological capacities, infrastructure development, and business services. Development and improvements have been made to build up a private sector that is fewer dependants on government or natural resources, thus making the area an attractive destination for investment and competitive market for expatriate workers and overseas expansions (Al Bawaba, 2007). The GCC countries investment climate is conducive to foreign investment. GCC countries are continuously adopting policies and taking measures to improve this climate and taking into consideration changes in the international economic parameters and factors. GCC economies recognize the value of attracting and maintaining foreign investment and have resulted to adopting measures aimed at attracting and encouraging foreign investment. GCCs openness to foreign investment and capital has been motivated by an expectation that foreign capital and investment will attract financial resources- visible and invisible, as well as bringing in modern technology (Al-Shamali Denton, 2000). In addition, it may also raise marketing potentials of the local firms by providing access to export markets. Foreign capital and investment can also advance skills and techniques of management and set up state-of-the art facilities of training. The initiative for encouraging invest mostly focuses on the institutional structure and on creating legal and administrative conditions appropriate for carrying out investment activities. Despite current global economic crises, the GCC has remained a very liquid expanse. The economic growth in several key sectors is forecasted to be moving forwards across the region. Any investor considering venturing in the GCC should be centrally positioned to take advantage of one of the worlds fastest-growing markets. However, investments and trade links among the Arab countries leave much to be desired. Capital-rich countries do not feel safe investing in people-endowed or resource-rich countries. However this latter group of Arab countriescan insure food safety, enlarged markets for industrializing GCC countries and investment opportunities (Al Bawaba, 2007). Political risk is often cited as a deterrent, along with bureaucracy. Most often governments are blamed for failure to devise a system that motivates the public as well as the private sector to joint efforts. This paper identifies investment prospect and provide advice on the challenges and opportunities for an Indian enterprise intending to embark on an investment in oil and gas service sector in the GCC region. Challenges and Opportunities In GCC Economies General Attitude towards Foreign Investors Generally speaking, GCC Countries religion, social fabric and norms, and their economic and political cultures do not have in any way prejudices against foreign investors (Al Bawaba, 2007 b). The fact is that there is a history of fruitful co-operation and strong tradition of hospitality. The number of foreign firms and expatriate workers in the region clearly manifest this attitude. Hostilities in whatsoever manner of at any level of contact are absent. Trade integration and Economic Philosophy in GCC economies The GCC economies has had an apparent degree of success in terms of trade integration, capital mobility, labor creation, and in setting regular standards in diverse regulation areas. Some of the GCC members have extended cordial privileges to foreign capitals and investment in areas such as share-market, investment, and government procurement. The longstanding economic philosophy of the region is obviously an open free market and outward oriented (Al Bawaba, 2007). Private property rights are well established and honored. GCC countries, unlike many developing countries, have never experienced what could be called socialist inclinations. Capital and goods are allowed to freely enter and leave GCC countries. Foreign exchange control measures are non- existent and as thus expatriation of profits, remittances and dividends face no restrictions. GCC countries openness is also manifested in their high foreign trade openness ratio which reached more than 70%. For comparison reasons, the same ratio amounted to 16% in U.S.A. and 18% in Japan. This manifests the dependence and incorporation of GCC economies in the international market (Al-Shamali Denton, 2000). Economic Status of GCC economies The combined Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the GCC economies is estimated to reach 1.15trillion dollars according to the Gulf Finance House (GFH) projections. The projection by the Saudi American Bank (Samba) and Al Ahli Bank estimates that by 2018, total investment in the GCC economies could reach up to 670 million dollars. The GCCs world economy share is estimated to enlarge slightly higher than the annual average global growth with an aggregate of 4.5 percent, compared to globally annual average of 3.3 percent (Emerging Markets Monitor, 2008). Within 10 years, the GCC countries are expected to be supplying nearly one-quarter of the world with oil as well as increased quantities of petrochemicals, plastics and metals. Economic Stability The six countries of the GCC possess many common and rather special characteristics. They all depend on oil and gas for government revenues and foreign exchange earnings. These governments revenues and expenditures move the engine of the economy. The non-oil sector, while growing constantly, remains relatively dependent. Oil will remain the major source of energy and the main vehicle to development for years to come (Al-Shamali Denton, 2000). Its role in the international economy as an important strategic commodity needs no elaboration here. Thus, GCC countries status as major producers and exporters will continue to enhance their economic power. GCC production of this strategic commodity accounts for more than 20% of world production. Of the worlds proven oil and natural gas reserves, GCC states hold 45% and 15% respectively, according to conservative estimates (Emerging Markets Monitor, 2008). GCC states have been recording positive GDP growth rates even at times of international recession. Their Consolidated GDP has surpassed the landmark of $ 550 Billion according to World Bank. Expenditure on capital formation (investment) totals more than 25% of GDP. Another indicator of stability, inflation, has remained one digit, and below 5% in most recent years in all GCC countries. Not only that, but inflation was recorded with a negative sign in some years. GCC states have maintained their realistic path of rationalizing expenditure and conservatively estimating revenues. This years budgets which have been based on expected oil prices of $ 40 per barrel, at a time when market indicators and oil experts expectations foresee a price close to $ 60 per barrel. In fact, this behavior has helped GCC countries to record large surpluses in their actual oil revenues during the last few years, and thus assisted them in settling internal debt arrears, and replenishing their foreign exchange reserves. It is evident that GCC countries have started to reap the fruits of the daring measures adopted for the last few years of rationalizing expenditure and embracing the concept of efficiency in the management of both the private and the public sectors. More importantly, they have succeeded in reducing peoples expectations regarding the role of t he government in providing subsidies, employment opportunitiesetc. GCC countries have enjoyed surpluses during the last decade, sometimes substantial, in the current balance of payments (Al Bawaba, 2007). High rates of savings, however, have been unmatched by corresponding internal investments, the potential growth vehicles for these economies. The exhaustibility of their resources implies the urgent need for long-term economic and financial planning in these countries before nonreversible trends take root Economic stability and growth are also combined with general trends which among other results strengthen and enhance foreign investments. GCC governments are pursing policies towards more economic liberalization, privatization and giving a greater role to the private sector. Moreover, export 0riented policies are dominating and manifested in the creation of export financing institutions and establishing specialized exporting units in ministries and chambers of commerce and industry. GCCs Political Stability GCC countries are renowned for their stable political and administrative governance. Power is smoothly handed and regime change is less frequent as compared to most of the developed and developing countries. The stability of the regimes in GCC countries is totally correlated with the stability of general strategies and policies (Al-Shamali Denton, 2000). The strong legitimacy and popular support enjoyed by GCC regimes is rather rare in other developing countries and even in some developed ones. However, on the political and administrative level, there are several fundamental problems that have remained unsolved. Some customs union are yet to be fully implemented, while unstable bilateral agreements between individual GCC states and other trade partners undermine the consistency of the external tariff regime. The monetary union of some GCC economies has been called into question and especially by latest announcement by Oman to opt out and by the reluctance of the governments to agree on representative criteria of convergence. Political tensions have been created between some neighboring GCC States, particularly between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, which could make the political stability level of the GCC economies to wobble. FDI in the GCC countries Having recognized the importance of attracting FDI, GCC economies have adopted new measures aimed at attracting foreign capital and investment. These new measures and development priorities include realizing sustained economic growth by raising investment rates of private sector; enhancing technological skills and local capacities; improving the exports into the world markets, creating more competitive employment opportunities. Openness to foreign capital and investment has been stimulated by an expectation that this openness will bring in financial resources, while attracting modern technology. In addition, foreign capital and investment provides raises marketing capabilities of local firms and access to export markets. It also facilitates upgrading of the management techniques and skills. In the GCC economies, the FDI flow accounts for more than the worlds average in two of the GCC states (Bahrain and Qatar). Conversely, except for the UAE, FDI stock has accounted for a key share weighed against to the value of Gross Domestic Product in these GCC economies, as was evidenced in the case of Bahrain, in which the stock reached more than 74 percent and 70 percent of the level of GDP in 2000 and 2004 respectively. The GCC Service sector Market The size of the market is considered one of the main factors in determining inflows of foreign investments. The larger the size of the market and the greater its growth rates, the larger are volumes of foreign investments. Unfortunately, a popular perception, based on the population estimates only, sees GCC states markets as small. This perception fails to appreciate a number of facts: First, GCC states constitute an economically united bloc which entails among other things a market size of a population approaching 38.7 million inhabitants. Second, the per capita income for GCC states is more that $ 14,317. In other words the populations of the GCC countries enjoy high levels of income, even by advanced industrialize countries standards. Third, the high incomes enjoyed by GCC countries are reflected in high purchasing power and effective demand. GCC states are also strategically situated, by neighboring the African and European continents and being the entrance gate to Asia. It should be mentioned that GCC imports from the rest of the world totaled about $ 119,524.35 million in 2004. Physical Infrastructure Whenever foreign investment in developing countries is discussed, inadequate physical infrastructure is cited as a major discouraging factor. On the contrary, GCC states have succeeded in utilizing their abundant resources in creating a very well developed by any standards physical infrastructure. Major industrial and population centers are connected to each other and to the ports with international standard road network. Recently installed telecommunication systems are in some ways even better than some industrialized countries. New power and water capacity is being installed, and the consumption is being rationalized through meaningful tariffs (Diekmeyer, 2009). Most large urban centers in the region have been provided with industrial parks, complete with necessary utilities and other amenities needed by manufacturing operations (Diekmeyer, 2009). Resource Endowment and Industrialization As petroleum and natural gas form the greatest volume of GCC resources, their industrial development has been directed mainly towards oil and gas based industries such as petroleum refining, chemical fertilizers and petrochemical industries and/or to energy intensive industries such as aluminum and steel (Al-Shamali Denton, 2000). This goes in line with the concept of comp of comparative advantage i.e. if countries specialize in producing commodities on the basis of their comparative advantage, returns from production and trade will be maximized. The availability of cheap energy resources is a blessing for GCC industrialization. For example, the gas used as a feed stock to the petrochemical industry is associated gas and most of it is a by-product of crude oil production. The cost of producing this gas is very low and if it is not used it would have to be flared (Al-Shamali Denton, 2000). Developments in the level and efficiency of the industrial capabilities of the GCC region enhanced the availability of a number of foreign investment attracting factors such as the skills available to prospective investors, efficiency of local suppliers and service firms, and a net-work of supporting institutions, both private and public. Labor Force The substantial developments which took place in all economic sectors have affected GCC labor force in two major ways. First, it required and induced large influxes of foreign professional, skilled and unskilled labor. On the positive side, this has helped in bridging the shortage in local labor, expediting the development process, and exposed the local labor force to a variety of rich experiences and high levels of theoretical and practical training in all fields and aspects of life. That is definitely a plus and an encouraging factor for any future investments, both local and foreign. Second, the tradition and experience in bringing and dealing with well-trained foreign labor reduces the possibility of manpower bottlenecks. That is to say labor as a factor of production is no problem for whoever is interested in establishing production or services units. Expatriate labors as well as nationals do not pay income taxes. Another important factor for foreign and local investors is that in the GCC region there is no record of business disruption because of labor disputes. Gcc India Business Relationship: GCC countries and India have strong trade relations. In 2005, the volume of trade between the two parties was nearly $20 billion GCC countries supply India with a large portion of its oil imports, near $6 billion (Alam, 2008). For GCC countries, their comparative advantages lie in the manufacture of hydrocarbons and the development of energy intensive metal and mineral based products. In addition to this there is a great scope for investment in small and medium size ventures. Furthermore, forecasts show that petrochemical industries for example can branch out into two categories during the next few years (Ramazani Kechichian, 1998). Industries in the GCC countries can specialize in basic petrochemical and energy intensive metals while Indian companies can benefit from such products by using them in manufacturing highly specialized and specialized and sophisticated products with higher value added (Alam, 2008). As a result, this step will certainly enhance the ability of GCC countries not only to import more specialized Indian products, but also will help them in diversifying their industrial base. The attractive investment climate and the geographical market proximity of GCC countries make them suitable candidates for export platform of Indian investments and joint ventures. This scenario is strengthened by the availability of more than 6000 GCC small and medium sized enterprises, covering a wide variety of manufacturing activities (Ramazani Kechichian, 1998). These include food, textiles, wood, paper, chemicals, metallic, non- metallic, engineering and other fields of activities (Alam, 2008). Studies reveal that about 90% of these SMES have plans for expanding their activities. This fact offers the Indian business community wide opportunities via joint ventures, turnkey operations, production sharing, licensing, and other forms of non- equity involvement. The GCC Indian economic relationship would be enhanced by: Arranging visits for Indian businessmen to GCC countries so that they learn more about the regions investment and business opportunities. FGCCC can co-ordinate such visits. Organizing joint exhibitions both in the region and in India. Organizing events to enlighten GCC businessmen with the available Indian co-operation instrument and institutions in fields of trade and investment. We notice a dearth of information on trade, markets and investment opportunities. There is a need for India GCC body to collect and disseminate such information. Challenges Trade Protection and Competitiveness Although many GCC countries boost of open trade policies, they extensively use production subsidies protect a large inefficient, domestic non-oil sectors, often public owned. Price related factors ones are usually among the most imperative factors that affect trade outcomes (Al Bawaba, 2007). The prices of goods and services being traded are considerably influenced by tariffs level and non tariff barriers as well as by real effective rates of exchange, which are themselves influenced by macroeconomic conditions and policies. There is a compelling evidence that trade protection is high for some GCC countries relative to their income levels. Lack of diversification The GCC countries lack diversification in the sustainable economic base and need to devise a system which encourages private investment in industry, agriculture, exports and re-exports, i.e., production and movement of goods. The virtual absence of continuous local water resources and reliance on desalinated water, which is both expensive and insecure, is a constant challenge. Local food and agricultural production falls far short of providing self-reliance and security in light of a burgeoning population and evolving patterns of consumption. Population increase and a dramatic upsurge in education require finding appropriate employment for those with improved skills, as the present rate of growth in the non-oil sector leaves a widening gap between manpower supply and demand. The Changing Economic Context of Gulf Politics The Islamist sectors in the states making up the GCC have grown more politically active since the time that the welfare states were established in the 1970s. The population in these regions has also increased while the price of oil, the main source of revenue, remained fixed. The educated young generation is actively seeking participation in administrative and political levels of governance, while the middle demands work with good wages (Ramazani Kechichian, 1998). On the political and administrative level, there are several fundamental problems that have remained unsolved. Some customs union are yet to be fully implemented, while unstable bilateral agreements between individual GCC states and other trade partners undermine the consistency of the external tariff regime. The monetary union of some GCC economies has been called into question and especially by latest announcement by Oman to opt out and by the reluctance of the governments to agree on representative criteria of convergence. Political tensions have been created between some neighboring GCC States, particularly between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, which could make the political stability level of the GCC economies to wobble. Recommendations and conclusions The GCC countries investment climate is conducive to foreign investment. GCC countries are continuously adopting policies and taking measures to improve this climate and taking into consideration changes in the international economic parameters and factors. GCC economies recognize the value of attracting and maintaining foreign investment and have resulted to adopting measures aimed at attracting and encouraging foreign investment. For Indian enterprises trading in the oil and petroleum service sector, their comparative advantage lies in their specialization in production technology The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is therefore an attractive destination for an entrepreneur wishing to invest in oil and petroleum service sector and the opportunities in this sector far outweighs the challenges. References Alam A., (2008) India and West Asia in the Era of Globalisation, Michigan: New Century Publications, Al-Shamali A., Denton J., (2000) Arab business: the globalization imperative, India: Kogan Page Publishers, Al Bawaba, (2007 a), The Future of the Gulf: The World Economic Forum Launches Scenarios on the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries, p1 Al Bawaba, (2007 b), Saudi Arabia intensifies reform efforts to improve competitiveness around two thirds of $240 billion in planned projects outside oil, gas, and petro p1 Diekmeyer, P. (2009) Ã¢â¬ Export Wise, Summer,Ã¢â¬ GCC: Infrastructure Development Opportunities., p26-28, 3p; Emerging Markets Monitor, GCC: Implications Of The Credit Crunch. (2007), Vol. 13 Issue 20, p1-2, Emerging Markets Monitor, (2008) US Crisis: GCC, 14 (26), p17-17,; Ramazani, R. K. Kechichian J. A. (1998) The Gulf Cooperation Council: record and analysis, US: University of Virginia Press,